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The wetland consists of 488 hectares divided into 3 parts; mangroves areas, acacia areas, and coastal forest areas, it contains at least 13 species of mangroves and 83 or more associated mangrove species.  The mangrove area is pristine with many associated animal species.  It is a forest reserve so the trees and associated animals are protected under the law and the by-laws of this area.


Some of the animals recorded are:

  • Macaque monkey

  • Violet-leaf monkey

  • Asian otter

  • Blue kingfisher

  • Siamese crocodile



Figure 1. The 3 types of forest present at the Sulaman Wetland Sanctuary. The Green area is the Mangrove Area, the Red area is the Coastal forest area, and the Yellow area is the Acacia forest area.


The Mangrove Area is 311 ha consisting of dense populations of mangrove tree species with canopy ranges from 5 to 35 m high.  Upstream, the lower height canopy, mangrove fern and bare mudflat areas of the mangroves indicate forestation of the mangrove trees with subsequent succession processes. 


The Acacia Area is currently being replanted with mangroves, this is part of our biologically carbon neutral initiative. Over 44,000 mangroves have been planted, reforesting 13.5 hectares of mangrove.  This initiative allows individuals to have the opportunity to balance the carbon dioxide emissions produced by their body.


The Coastal Forest Area is typified by Pandanus species with tall Casuarinas in the foreshore.  Behind the foreshore; low and sandy substrate with freshwater lenses promotes the development of freshwater swamp forests.  In drier raised areas, the coastal forest merges with Kerangas tropical heath forest and a greater variety of species exist within an area classified as Coastal Forest.

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